Ananda Marga - Pula
A'NANDA MA'RGA (ELEMENTARY PHILOSOPHY - OSNOVE FILOZOFIJE)
PUBLISHER'S NOTE A'nanda Ma'rga was the first-published of the more than two hundred books of Shrii Shrii A'nandamu'rti. It appeared in its original Bengali in 1955 and was translated into English in 1961. When the original Bengali came to be revised in 1963, a subtitle was added; so when the revised Bengali was translated into an English second edition in 1967, that second edition was titled A'nanda Ma'rga: Elementary Philosophy. Though the author produced over two hundred books between 1955 and 1990, A'nanda Ma'rga: Elementary Philosophy continues to hold a key place as an introduction to the author's entire ideology. Its speciality is the use of formal, though simple, logic to make an utterly convincing case for the existence of Supreme Consciousness and the need of spiritual practice. The author used a certain shorthand for explaining the etymologies of words. Under this system, a minus sign (-) follows a prefix, and a plus sign (+) precedes a suffix. Thus ava - tr + ghain = avata'ra can be read, "the root tr prefixed by ava and suffixed by ghain becomes avata'ra."
NAPOMENA IZDAVČA A'nanda Ma'rga je prva izdana knjiga od ukupno više od dvije stotine knjiga od Shrii Shrii A'nandamu'rtija. Prvi puta je objavljena na jeziku Bengali 1955. godine i prevedena je na engleski jezik 1961. godine. Godine 1963. originalno izdanje na Bengali jeziku je revidirano i djelu je dodan podnaslov. Kad je revidirano izdanje na Bengali jeziku prevedeno na engleski jezik kao drugo izdanje 1967. godine, to drugo izdanje naslovljeno je: A'nanda Ma'rga: Osnove Filozofije. Unatoč tome što je autor stvorio preko dvije stotine knjiga između 1955. i 1990. godine, 'nanda Ma'rga: Osnove Filozofije zadržava ključno mjesto kao uvod u cjelukopnu ideologiju autora. Posebnost ovog djela je što koristi formalnu iako jednostavnu logiku kako bi ostavila krajnje uvjerljiv utisak o postojanju Vrhovne Svijesti i o potrebi duhovne prakse. Autor koristi posebne kratice kako bi objasnio korijen [etimologiju] riječi. Taj sistem koristi minus (-) znak ako prefiks i znak plus (+) kao sufiks. Stoga ava - tr + ghain = avata'ra može se pročitati kao "korijen tr sa prefiksom ava nakon kojeg slijedi sufiks ghain postaje avata'ra."
Chapter: WHAT IS DHARMA? - Poglavlje: ŠTO JE DHARMA?
WHAT IS DHARMA?
Human beings are the highest-evolved beings. They possess clearly-reflected consciousness, and this makes them superior to animals. No other being has such a clear reflection of consciousness. Human beings can distinguish between good and bad with the help of their consciousness, and when in trouble they can find a way out, with its help. No one likes to live in misery and suffering, far less human beings, whose consciousness can find means of relief. Life without sorrow and suffering is a life of happiness and bliss, and that is what people desire. Everyone is in quest of happiness; in fact it is people's nature to seek happiness. Now let us see what one does to achieve it and whether it is achieved by those means.
ŠTO JE DHARMA?
Ljudska bića su najrazvijenija bića. Posjeduju jasno izraženu svjesnost i to ih čini nadmoćnijima od životinja. Niti jedno drugo biće nema tako jasno izraženu svjesnost. Ljudi mogu razlikovati dobro od zla uz pomoć svoje svjesnosti i kad su u nevolji mogu pronaći izlaz pomoću nje. Nitko ne želi živjeti u jadu i patnji a ponajmanje ljudi, pošto svjesnost čovjeka može naći izlaz iz takve situacije. Život bez tuge i patnje je život sreće i blagostanja i to je ono što ljudi žele. Svatko je u potrazi za srećom; u biti - potraga za srećom je u ljudskoj prirodi. Pogledajmo sada što ljudi čine da je dostignu i da li je uopće moguće doseći istu na taj način.
In their search for happiness people are first attracted towards physical enjoyments. They amass wealth and try to achieve power and position to satisfy their desires for happiness. One who has a hundred rupees is not satisfied with it, one strives for a thousand rupees, but even possessing thousands of rupees does not satisfy. One wants a million, and so on. Then it is seen that a person having influence in a district wants to extend it over a province, provincial leaders want to become national leaders, and when they have achieved that there creeps in a desire for world leadership. Mere acquisition of wealth, power and position does not satisfy a person. The acquisition of something limited only creates the want for more, and the quest for happiness finds no end. The hunger for possessing is unending. It is limitless and infinite.
U svojoj potrazi za srećom ljudi su prvotno privučeni prema fizičkim užicima. Ljudi akumuliraju materijalno bogatstvo i pokušavaju doseći pozicije moći kako bi zadovoljili svoju potrebu za srećom. Ako netko ima stotinu rupija nije zadovoljan time, već želi imati tisuću rupija. No, čak niti tisuću rupija neće biti dovoljno. Čovjek želi milijun i tako dalje. Jednako tako, možemo primijetiti da ako netko ima utjecaja na okrug želi proširiti svoj utjecaj na provinciju. Vođe provincije žele postati nacionalni vođe a kad to postignu, u njima čuči želja da postanu vođe cijelog svijeta. Težnja za bogatstvom, moći i položajem neće zadovoljiti čovjeka. Postizanje nečega što je konačno samo potiče želju za više i potraga za srećom nema kraja. Glad za pojedovanjem je neutaživa, beskrajna i beskonačnaa.
However dignified or lofty the achievement, it fails to set at rest people's unlimited quest for happiness. Those who hanker after wealth will not be satisfied until they can obtain unlimited wealth. Nor will the seeker of power, position and prestige be satisfied until he or she can get these in limitless proportions, as all these are objects of the world. The world itself is finite and cannot provide infinite objects. Naturally, therefore, the greatest worldly acquisition, even if it be the entire globe, would not secure anything of an infinite and permanent character. What then is that infinite, eternal thing which will provide everlasting happiness?
Bez obzira na to koliko časno ili impresivno neko postignuće bilo, ne može umiriti ljudsku beskonačnu želju za srećom. Oni koji žude za bogatstvom neće biti zadovoljni dok ne dostignu beskonačno bogatstvo. Jednako tako, niti onaj koji žudi za moći , položajem i prestižom neće biti zadovoljan dok isto ne postigne u beskonačnim razmjerima. To je zato što su to sve objekti sa ovoga svijeta. Svijet sam po sebi je konačan i ne može pružiti ništa beskonačno. Stoga je sasvim prirodno da čak niti najveće postignuće na ovome svijetu - cijeli globus - ne može osigurati ništa što je beskonačno i nepromjenjivo po svojoj prirodi. Dakle, što je to beskonačno i vječno što može pružiti beskonačnu sreću?
The Cosmic Entity alone is infinite and eternal. It alone is limitless. And the eternal longing of human beings for happiness can only be satiated by realization of the Infinite. The ephemeral nature of worldly possessions, power and position can only lead one to the conclusion that none of the things of the finite and limited world can set at rest the everlasting urge for happiness. Their acquisition merely gives rise to further longing. Only realization of the Infinite can do it. The Infinite can be only one, and that is the Cosmic Entity. Hence it is only the Cosmic Entity that can provide everlasting happiness -- the quest for which is the characteristic of every human being. In reality, behind this human urge is hidden the desire, the longing, for attainment of the Cosmic Entity. It is the very nature of every living being. This alone is the dharma of every person.
Samo Kozmički Entitet je beskonačan i vječan. Samo on je bez granica. I vječna težnja ljudskih bića za srećom može se zadovoljiti jedino realizacijom Beskonačnog. Promjenjiva priroda svjetovnih dobara, moć i položaj mogu samo dovesti do zaključka da ništa sa navedenoga sa konačnog planeta ne može smiriti vječnu težnju za srećom. Prisvajanje konačnih stvari i vrijednosti samo stvara potrebu za budućim htjenjem. Jedino realizacija Beskonačnoga može utažiti žeđ za srećom. Beskonačni može biti samo jedan, a to je Kozmički Entitet. Stoga jedino Kozmički Entitet može pružiti beskonačnu sreću -- zadatak koji je karakterističan za svako ljudsko biće. U stvari, iza ljudske težnje za srećom stoji skrivena težnja za Kozmičkim Entitetom. To je prava dharma svake osobe.
The word dharma signifies "property" . The English word for it is "nature", "characteristic" or "property". The nature of fire is to burn or produce heat. It is the characteristic or property of fire and is also termed the nature of fire. Similarly, the dharma or nature of a human being is to seek the Cosmic Entity.
Riječ dharma znači svojstvo. Engleska riječ za "dharma" jeste priroda, karakteristika ili svojstvo. Priroda vatre je da gori i stvara toplinu. Ova karakteristika vatre naziva se još i priroda vatre. Jednako tome, dharma ili priroda ljudskog bića je da je u potrazi za Kozmičkim Entitetom.
The degree of divinity in human beings is indicated by their clearly-reflected consciousness. Every human being, having evolved from animals, has, therefore, two aspects -- the animal aspect, and the conscious aspect which distinguishes a person from animals. Animals display predominantly the animality, while human beings due to a well-reflected consciousness also possess rationality. The animality in human beings gives them a leaning towards animal life or physical enjoyment. They, under its influence, look to eating, drinking and gratification of other physical desires. They are attracted towards these and run after them under the influence of their animality but these do not provide happiness as their longing for it is infinite. Animals are satisfied with these limited enjoyments as their urge is not infinite. However large the quantity of things offered to an animal may be, it will take only those which it needs and will not bother for the rest. But humans will certainly act differently in these conditions. This only establishes that animals are satisfied with the limited, while the desire of human beings is limitless, although the desire for enjoyment in both is prompted and governed by the animal aspect of life. The difference in the two is due to the possession by the human being of a clearly-reflected consciousness, something which animals lack. The infinite nature of the human urge for absolute happiness is due to their consciousness alone. It is this consciousness alone which is not satisfied with the physical pleasure of possession, power and position -- things which in spite of their huge proportions, are only transitory in character. It is their consciousness which creates in human beings the longing for the Cosmic Entity.
Stupanj božanskoga u ljudima se očituje u jasno-odraženoj svjesnosti u ljudi. Svaki čovjek, kako se razvio od životinja, ima dvije strane -- životinjsku stranu i svjesnu stranu koja ga čini različitim od životinja. Životinje djeloju poglavito životinjski, no ljudska bića, zbog jasno odražene svjesnosti, isto tako posjeduju i razum. Životinjsko u ljudima daje im nagon prema životinjskom životu fizičkih zadovoljstava. Ljudi zbog utjecaja životinjskog u njima traže hranu, piće i zadovoljenje ostalih fizičkih želja. Ljudi su privučeni prema fizičkim zadovoljstvima i pod njihovim utjecajem jure za njima, ali im ona ne mogu pružiti sreću jer ljudi teže za beskonačnim. Životinje su zadovoljne tim konačnim zadovoljstvima i njihov nagon nije za beskonačnim. Neovisno o količini ponuđenih dobara životinji, životinja će uzeti samo toliko koliko joj treba i neće razmišljait o višku. Ljudi su, u svakom slučaju, drugačiji po tom pitanju. To samo potvrđuje činjenicu da su životinje zadovoljne ograničenim, dok su ljudske želje za neograničenim; iako želja za uživanjem kod oboje je uglavnom poticana i upravljana od strane životinjskog. Razlika između ljudi i životinja je u tome što ljudi imaju jasno odraženu svjesnost, nešto što kod životinja nije slučaj. Beskonačna priroda ljudskog poriva za neograničenom srećom postoji samo zbog njihove svjesnosti. Ta svjesnost je razlog zbog kojeg čovjek nije zadovoljan fizičkim zadovoljstvom posjedovanja, moći i statusa -- stvari koje, unatoč svojoj veličini, po svojoj prirodi su prolazne. Svjesnost u ljudima je ono što ih čini da teže Kozmičkoj Svijesti.
The objects of the world -- the physical enjoyments -- do not quench the thirst of the human heart for happiness. Yet we find that people are attracted by them. The animality in people draws them towards gratification of animal desires, but the rationality of their consciousness remains ungratified since all these are transitory and short-lived. They are not enough to set at rest the unending and unlimited hunger of the human consciousness. There is, thus, a constant duel in humans between their animality and rationality. The animal aspect pulls them towards instant earthly joys, while their consciousness, not being satisfied with these, draws them towards the Cosmic Entity -- the Infinite. This results in the struggle between the animal aspect and consciousness. Had the carnal pleasures derived from power and position been infinite and endless, they would have set at rest the eternal quest of consciousness for happiness. But they do not, and that is why the fleeting glory of temporal joys can never secure a lasting peace in the human mind and lead people to ecstasy.
Objekti iz ovoga svijeta -- fizički užitak -- ne može utažiti žeđ čovjeka za srećom. Unatoč tome, ljude privlače ti fizički objekti. Životinjsko u ljudima vuče ljude prema životinjskim težnjama, no razum unutar njihove svjesnosti ostaje nezadovoljan zbog toga što je sve prolazno i kratkoga vijeka. Objekti iz ovoga svijeta nisu dovoljni da umire beskonačnu i bezgraničnu glad ljudske svijesti. Stoga je u ljudima stalna borma između životinjskog i razuma. Životinjski dio ih stalno vuče prema trenutnim zemaljskim užicima, dok njihova svijest - nezadovoljna time - vuče prema Kozmičkom Entitetu - prema Beskonačnome. Zbog toga je u ljudima stalna borba između životinjskog dijela i razuma. Kad bi tjelesni užici koji proizilaze iz moći i položaja bili beskrajni i beskonačni, oni bi mogli utažiti vječnu žeđ svijesti za srećom. No, ti tjelesni užici to ne mogu, stoga prolazni i trenutni užitak nikako ne može osigurati trajni mir u ljudskom umu i odvesti ljude u ekstazu.
It is only the well-reflected consciousness which differentiates human beings from animals. Is it then not imperative for human beings to make use of their consciousness? If their consciousness lies dormant behind their animality, people are bound to behave like animals. They in fact become worse than animals as, even though endowed with well-reflected consciousness, they do not make use of it. Such people do not deserve the status of human beings. They are animals in human form.
Samo dobro odražena svijest je ona koja razlikuje čovjeka od životinje. Nije li tada nužno za ljude da iskoriste tu i takvu svijest? Ako svijest ljudi leži uspavana iza životinjskoga, tada su ljudi osuđeni na životinjsko ponašanje. U stvari, ljudi postaju gori od životinja pošto, iako su obdareni dobro odraženom svijesti, ne mogu je iskoristiti. Takvi ljudi ne zaslužuju status ljudskih bića. Oni su životinje u ljudskom obliku.
The nature of consciousness is to seek for the Infinite or realize the Cosmic Entity. Only those who make use of their consciousness and follow its dictates deserve to be called human beings. Therefore, every person, by making full use of his or her reflected consciousness, earns the right to be called a human being and finds his or her dharma or nature to be only the search for the Infinite or Cosmic Entity. This longing for the Infinite is the innate quality or dharma which characterizes the human status of people.
Priroda svijesti je da traži beskonačno ili da osvijesti Kozmički Entitet Samo oni koji koriste svoju svijest i slijede njene težnje zasluju da se zovu ljudska bića. Stoga svaki čovjek koji u potpunosti koristi svoju odraženu svijest zaslužuje pravo da se zove ljudskim bićem. Isto tako, shvaća da je njegova jedina priroda potraga za Beskonačnim ili Kozmičkm Svijesti. Ovaj nagon za Beskonačnim je unutarnji poriv, ili Dharma koja označava ljudski status čovjeka.
Happiness is derived by getting what one desires. If one does not get what one desires, one cannot be happy. One becomes sad and miserable. The clearly-reflected consciousness in people, which alone distinguishes them from animals, seeks the Cosmic Entity or the Infinite. And so people derive real happiness only when they can attain the Cosmic Entity or get into the process of attaining It. Consciousness does not want earthly joys because being finite none of them satisfy it. The conclusion we arrive at is that the dharma of humanity is to realize the Infinite or the Cosmic Entity. It is only by means of this dharma that people can enjoy eternal happiness and bliss.
Kada dobijemo ono što želimo, ada smo sretni. Ne možemo biti sretni ako naše želje nisu ispunjene. Postajemo tužni i puni jada. Jasno odražena svjesnost u ljudima, ona koja nas čini različitima od životinja, traži Kozmički Entitet ili Beskonačnoga. Stoga ljudi mogu zaista biti sretni samo kada dosegnu Kozmički Entitet, ili kada se upuste u proces dosezanja istog. Svjesnost ne želi ovozemaljska zadovoljstva jer su ona konačna i ne mogu je zadovoljiti. Zaključak koji se nameće jeste da je dharma ljudi spoznati Beskonačnoga ili Kozmičku svijest. Samo kroz tu dharmu ljudi mogu uživati vječnu sreću i zadovoljstvo.
The characteristic or dharma of human beings is to attain Brahma. It is, therefore, necessary to see whether Brahma exists or not, as it would be futile to attempt to get something which does not actually exist. If Brahma exists, we must know what It is.
Karakteristika ili dharma ljudi jeste da dosegnu Brahmu. Stoga je nužno utvrditi da li Brahma postoji ili ne postoji, bilo bi uzaludno posezati za nečim što, u stvari, ne postoji. Ako Brahma postoji, moramo znati što je To.
Every action a person performs, appears to have been executed by his or her physical organs, the indriyas. These organs or indriyas are ten. And it appears that almost every action that a person performs appears to have been performed because of these ten indriyas. Yet this is not actually so. If the mind does not work behind them, the indriyas by themselves cannot perform any action. It is the mind which works and the ten indriyas are merely the instruments through which the work is executed. The action which originates in mind only finds its external manifestation with the help of the indriyas. To explain this we can take the example of a person looking at a book. It is only the mind which visualizes the book with the help of the eyes. If the mind does not work the eyes will not be able to see the book. For instance, a person in an unconscious state because of anaesthesia or some other reason will not be able to see the book even if his or her eyes are wide open. In such an unconscious state the eyes are not damaged, yet they cannot perform their natural function because the contact with the mind is suspended. This is why under the influence of anaesthesia, the organs or indriyas do not function, although they remain in perfect order. Often, when we are absorbed in thought, we fail to notice a person or recognize a friend standing right in front of us. This is only because, in spite of our eyes being in perfect order and wide open, the mind, which actually performs all actions, does not make use of the indriyas, the eyes. It is the mind which works and the indriyas only help in its external manifestation.
Sve što čovjek čini izgleda kao da je učinjeno s njegovim ili njenim senzo-motornim organima, indriyas. Ovih indriya ima 10 (deset). Naizgled, bilo što što čovjek učini izgleda kao da je učinio pomoću tih 10 indriya - senzo-motornim organa. U biti to nije tako. Ako um ne bi radio u pozadini tih 10 senzo-motornim organa, indriyas, senzo-motornim organi sami po sebi ne bi mogli učiniti ništa. Um je onaj koji djeluje a 10 senzo-motornim organa, indriyas, samo su instrument pomoću kojih je djelovanje izvršeno. Rad koji se prvo pojavi u umu izrazi se u fizičkom svijetu pomoću indriyas - 10 senzorno-motornih organa. Da to opišemo, možemo uzeti primjer osobe koja gleda u knjigu. U stvari, um je onaj koji vizualizira knjigu uz pomoć očiju. Bez pomoći uma, oči same po sebi ne mogu vidjeti knjigu. Primjerice, osoba koja je u nesvjesti zbog anestezije ili iz bilo kojeg drugog razloga ne može vidjeti njigu iako joj oči mogu biti širom otvorene. U stanju nesvjestice oči ne moraju biti oštećene, no ne mogu ispuniti svoju prirodnu funkciju jer im nedostaje veza s umom. To je razlog što tijekom anestezije indriyas - 10 senzorno-motornih organa ne funkcioniraju, iako je s njima sve u savršenom redu. Često, kada smo zauzeti vlastitim mislima, ne primijetimo prijatelja ili osobu koja može stajati upravo ispred nas. Razlog tome je što, iako nam oči mogu biti u savršenom redu i širom otvorene, um - koji u stvari čini sva djela - ne dopušta nam da koristimo indriyas, u ovom slučaju oči. Um djeluje a indriyas mu samo pomažu u sprovođenju njegovih djela u vanjskom svijetu.
If it is the mind only which works, let us see how it acts through these indriyas. For instance, looking at a book is an action which the mind performs with the help of the eyes. When the mind sees a book, what actually happens is that the mind, with the help of the eyes, takes the shape of something we call a book. This shape which the mind takes is different from the image which is formed on the retina, as the mind can see and become like a book even when the eyes are closed; but the eyes cannot see when the mind does not function. So it is the mind which takes the form of a book during visual perception. This portion of the mind which takes the form of the book is termed citta or mind-stuff. But even if the citta takes the form of a book, there must be something other than the citta which does the work of seeing. The part of the mind which does the work of seeing is called aham'tattva or doer "I". But "I" will not be able to see anything unless "I" exists. So there must be another part of the mind which is different from these two. This third part of the mind is the part which gives the feeling of "I" and is called mahattattva. Without the feeling of the existence of "I" or knowledge of the self, no action can be performed. This feeling of "I" or knowledge of the self comes from mahattattva or buddhitattva. The collective name for these three -- citta, aham'tattva and mahattattva -- is mind or antahkaran'a or introversal psychic force. But these three portions of mind are only the outward manifestations of mind. It is with this mind that the action of seeing a book is performed, and this is termed psychic assimilation of ru'pa tanma'tra.
Ukoliko je um taj koji djeluje, pogledajmo način na koji djeluje kroz indriyas - senzo-motorne organe. Primjerice, gledanje u knjigu je čin koji um čini uz pomoć očiju. Kad um vidi knjigu, ono što se u stvari dešava je da um pomoću očiju preuzme oblik nečega što nazivamo knjiga. Ovaj oblik i koji se um pretvara nije jednak slici koja se stvorila na rožnici oka - um može predstaviti knjigu i preuzeti oblik knjige čak i kad su oči zatvorene. No, oči ne mogu vidjeti knjigu kad um ne djeluje. Um je ono što uzima oblik knjige kod korištenja čula vida. Dio uma koji se pretvara u oblik knjige nazivamo još i citta, ili umna tvar. U trenutku kad citta preuzme formu knjige treba postojati još nešto što čini gledanje. Dio uma koji izvršava čin gledanja zove se aham'tattva ili "Ja" koje čini. No, "Ja" ne može učiniti ništa ukoliko "Ja" ne postoji. Stoga mora postojati još neki dio uma osim ova dva. Taj treći dio uma je dio koji daje osjećaj jastva ("Ja") i zove se mahattattva. Bez osjećaja o postojanju "Ja" i saznanja o sebi, nikakva akcija se ne može učiniti. Taj osjećaj jastva ili znanje o sebi dolazi od mahattattve ili buddhitattve. Zajedničko ime za svo troje -- citta, aham'tattva i mahattattva -- je um ili antahkaran'a, ili introverzna (unutarnja, ona okrenuta prema unutra) psihička sila. No, ta tri pobrojana dijela uma samo su izvanjska manifestacija uma. Sa tim umom vrši se čin gledanja knjige i to se naziva psihička asimilacija ru'pa tanma'tre.
Tanma'tra is a new term and should be explained. The microscopic fraction of a wave radiated from an object and received by the indriyas is called tanma'tra or inference. To explain this further, it can be said that the idea of a book is grasped with the help of ru'pa tanma'tra (the ideatory vibration of the nerves creates an image or figure in the mind) when one looks at the book. But if the eyes are closed or if one is in a dark place, one can still recognize the book by touch. Here the idea of the book is assimilated due to another tanma'tra, that is, the tanma'tra of touch or tactual perception. Again if someone drops a book out of sight or out of reach, it is possible to identify it as a book through the auditory tanma'tra. Citta comes in contact with the tanma'tras only when aham'tattva wants it to. The act of looking at or identifying the book must be done by aham'tattva as citta by itself does not possess the capacity to perform any function. When aham'tattva or the part of the mind which works wants to see a book, citta comes in contact with the organs of sight, that is, the eyes. The eyes receive the ru'pa tanma'tra from the book. This tanma'tra which is always present in the environment in the form of waves, strikes against citta through the eyes, which form a sort of door to bring citta in contact with the outside world. Citta then takes the shape of the book, and aham'tattva identifies or sees it as per the shape which citta has taken. Similarly, when aham'tattva wants to hear something it puts citta in contact with the organs of hearing, the ears. The ears receive the sound tanma'tra, which is always present in the physical environment, through the medium of sound waves. Citta, on the impact of this tanma'tra, becomes the sound itself, and aham'tattva hears that sound. This shows that citta takes the form of whatever aham'tattva desires or does. To put it another way, citta manifests the actions which aham'tattva performs.
Tanma'tra je novi izraz koji treba objasniti. Indriye primaju mikroskopski malene djeliće vala koji objekat odašilje. Ti mikroskopski djelići odaslanog vala nazivaju se tanma'tre ili odrazi objekta. Kako bi to dodatno pojasnili, može se reći da knjigu pojmimo uz pomoć ru'pa tanma'tre (idejnu tvorbu knjige u umu stvaraju vibracije živčanih stanica) kada gledamo knjigu. No, čak i kad imamo oči zatvorene i stojimo u mraku, možemo prepoznati knjigu dodirom. U ovom slučaju knjigu pojmimo pomoću druge tanma'tre, a to je tanma'tra dodira ili čulo dodira. Ako netko ispusti knjigu na pod izvan našeg vidokruga ili dosega, moguće je pojmiti knjigu pomoću zvučne tanma'tre. Citta - umna tvar - dolazi u doticaj sa tanma'trama samo kada aham'tattva to želi. Aham'tattva mora izvršiti čin gledanja ili prepoznavanja knjige, pošto citta sama po sebi nema mogućnost izvođenja bilo kakve funkcije. Kad aham'tattva, tj. dio uma koji čini želi vidjeti knjigu, citta dolazi u kontakt s očima, tj. organom vida. Oči prime ru'pa tanma'tru od knjige. To je tanma'tra koaj je uvije prisutna u okolini u obliku valova udari u cittu pomoću očiju. Oči su kao vrata koja omogućavaju citti da dođe u doticaj sa vanjskim svijetom. Citta tada uzima oblik knjige i aham'tattva knjigu prepoznaje ili vidi prema obliku knjige koji je citta preuzela. Jednako tako, kad aham'tattva želi nešto čuti, tada stavlja cittu u kontak s organima sluha, ušima. Uši primaju tanma'tru zvuka koja je uvijek prisutna u okolini pomoću zvučnih valova. Citta, pod utjecajem te tanma'tre, sama postaje zvuk i aham'tattva čuje taj zvuk. Sve navedeno pokazuje kako citta - umna tvar - uzima preuzima formu svega što aham'tattva poželi, ili čini. Drugim riječima, citta - umna tvar - odražava akcije koje aham'tattva izvodi.
It has already been explained that citta, aham'tattva and mahattattva or buddhitattva constitute the mind. Citta only has the capacity to take the form which aham'tattva wants. Similarly aham'tattva only has the capacity to perform actions. It can only work. There must be something to make it work. That something is mahattattva or buddhitattva, which gives one the feeling of "I". This feeling of "I" is derived from the mind and this "I" in the mind makes aham'tattva and citta perform their respective functions. Without this "I" it is not possible to feel or see a book even if, under the influence of aham'tattva, citta takes the shape of the book. But then this "I" is only a part of the mind. That is, there is another "I" which is the possessing "I", or the "I" which knows that there is a mind. The existence of "I" in the mind only proves that there is another real entity which is beyond mind and which knows the existence of mind. This "I" which is the witnessing entity and witnesses the existence of mind and the existence of buddhitattva or the feeling of "I", is called a'tman or unit consciousness. Thus through introspection and concentrated thinking one observes that a'tman and mind, that is, unit consciousness and mind, are two separate entities.
Već je prije objašnjeno da su citta, aham'tattva i mahattattva ili buddhitattva dijelovi uma. Ono što citta može napraviti jeste preuzeti formu koju aham'tattva zaželi. Slično tome, jedino što aham'tattva može činiti jeste da čini. Može samo raditi. Stoga mora postojati nešto što je tjera da radi. To nešto je mahattattva ili buddhitattva, ono što daje osjećaj "Ja". Taj osjećaj "Ja" proizlazi iz uma i taj osjećaj "Ja" u umu tjera aham'tattvu i cittu da izvršavaju svoje zadane funkcije. Bez tog osjećaja "Ja" nije moguće niti osjetiti niti vidjeti knjigu čak i kad aham'tattva i citta uzmu oblik knjige. No, i tada je taj osjećaj "Ja" sam dio uma. To znači da postoji još jedan "Ja", a to je "Ja" koji posjeduje, ili onaj "Ja" koji zna da postoji um. Postojanje "Ja" u umu samo dokazuje da postoji jedan stvarni entitet koji je iznad uma i koji zna da um postoji. Taj "Ja" je entitet koji svjedoči; svjedoči postojanju uma i svjedoči postojanju buddhitattve ili osjećaja jastva - naziva se još i a'tman, ili svijest jedinke. Čineči introspekciju i koncentrirano promišljanje može se doći do spoznaje da su a'tman ili svijest jedinke i um dva zasebna entiteta.
A'tman or unit consciousness and mind are two separate entities, yet they must be related to each other. In the first instance it appears that I am aware of my existence. Then the same "I" that appears to prove my existence makes me work, and a part of my mind called citta takes the form of the book through tanma'tras to enable me to see the book. The "I" that gives me consciousness or the "I" which witnesses the existence of my mind and therein of the "I" which gives the feeling "I exist" is a'tman or unit consciousness. The "I" that gives the feeling of "I exist" and also proves the existence of a'tman or unit consciousness, is mahattattva. The "I" that works or sees the book is aham'tattva and the portion of mind that takes the shape of the book and enables aham'tattva to see it is citta. This shows that the same "I" has a different function at each stage. How these different functions of the same "I" come about needs further clarification. The statement "I exist" presupposes the presence of "I" which is the witness of this existence. This witnessing entity is a'tman or unit consciousness and its presence is established by the feeling of existence that one displays by one's every action. That this assertion of "I exist" is different from a'tman or unit consciousness is seen from the fact that this "I" presupposes the presence of my a'tman or unit consciousness. This feeling proves that unit consciousness is only consciousness and that without consciousness existence is not possible. Without consciousness there can be no feeling of existence. What then is going to witness the existence of "I"? Consciousness is therefore essential to create the feeling of mahattattva or buddhitattva. To be explicit, mahattattva or buddhitattva cannot exist without a'tman or unit consciousness.
A'tman ili svjesnost jedinke i um dva su zasebna entiteta, no oni su u međuzavisnom odnosu. Prvo je značajno da sam svjestan svoga postojanja. Nakon toga taj isti "Ja" koji, izgleda, dokazuje moje postojanje čini me da radim i dio mojega uma koji se naziva citta preuzima formu knjige. Pomoću tanma'tras citta preuzima formu knjige i tako mi omogućava da vidim knjigu. "Ja" koji mi daje svjesnost ili "Ja" koji svjedoči postojanju mog uma i posljedično tome onome "Ja" koji mi daje osjećaj "ja postojim" je a'tman, ili svjesnost jedinke. Onaj "Ja" koji mi daje osjećaj "ja postojim" i isto tako dokazuje postojanje a'tmana ili svjesnosti jedinke jeste mahattattva. Ono "Ja" koje čini ili vidi knjigu je aham'tattva, a dio uma koji preuzima oblik knjige i omogućava aham'tattvi da je vidi jeste citta.To pokazuje da jedno te isto "Ja" ima različitu ulogu na svakom stupnju. Potrebno je dodatno pojasniti te različite uloge jednog te istog "Ja". Stanje "Ja postojim" pretpostavlja postojanje jastva koje svjedoči tom postojanju.  ... nastaviti dalje ...
But the witnessing entity and the pure "I" feeling appear to be different functional forms of the same "I". In fact the "I" that witnesses my existence, also manifests itself as the "I" of "I exist." The witnessing "I" is unit consciousness or a'tman and it manifests itself as mahattattva or buddhitattva and thus establishes its own existence. It is the witnessing entity or unit consciousness which on taking up the function of the "I" of "I exist", is called mahattattva or buddhitattva. Thus unit consciousness is not only consciousness, it also has a quality with the help of which it manifests itself through different functions. This quality is not consciousness, as otherwise it would not be necessary for unit consciousness to manifest itself as mahattattva and express itself as the "I" of "I exist", which is different from the witnessing entity. Consciousness and its quality are therefore two separate entities in a'tman or unit consciousness. As this quality is different from consciousness, it must have been obtained from somewhere. There must be some other factor to qualify a'tman to make it manifest itself as mahattattva. That which gives this quality to a'tman is called Prakrti. In other words, it is due to Prakrti qualifying a'tman that it is manifested as mahattattva and gets the feeling of "I".
No, ja koje svjedoči i čisti osjećaj jastva "Ja" u stvari su različiti funkcinalni oblici istoga "Ja". U stvarnosti se "Ja" koje svjedoči mojem postojanju isto tako manfestira i kao "Ja" kod "Ja postojim". "Ja" koje svjedoči jest svjesnost jedinke ili a'tman i manifestira se kao mahattattva ili budhittattva i tako utvrđuje svoje vlastito postojanje. Entitet koji svjedoči ili svjesnost jedinke koja kod preuzimanja funkcije "Ja" od "Ja postojim" naziva se mahattattva ili budhittattva. Stoga sjesnost jedinke nije samo svjesnost, ona isto tako ima kvalitetu pomoću koje se manifestira kroz različite funkcije. Ta kvaliteta nije svjesnost, jer u suprotnom ne bi bilo potrebno svjesnost jedinke da se da se manifestira kao mahattattva i izrazi kao "Ja" od "Ja postojim" - koje je različito od entiteta koji svjedoči. Svjesnost i njezina kvaliteta su stoga dva različita entiteta u a'tmanu ili svjesnosti jedinke. Kako je ta kvaliteta različita od svjesnosti, od nekuda je morala doći. Mora postojati nekakav drugi čimbenik koji kvalificira a'tman i učini ga da se manifestira kao mahattattva. Ono što daje tu kvalitetu a'tmanu zove se Prakrti. Drugim riječima, zbog toga što Prakrti kvalificira a'tman da se isti manifestira kao mahattattva i tako dobije osjećaj "Ja".
Prakrti needs an explanation. Prakrti is the entity which controls natural phenomena. Prakrti is neither nature nor quality. For instance, the quality of burning is said to be the nature of fire. There must be something which gives this quality to fire; just as there is some entity which gives its quality to unit consciousness. That which qualifies unit consciousness is Prakrti and not the quality which is exhibited due to Her influence. Prakrti is a Sanskrit word and is derived pra -- kr + ktin and it means to do something in a special way. Unit consciousness establishes its existence only by being qualified by Prakrti. In other words, Prakrti qualifies unit consciousness or a'tman to give it the feeling of its existence. Energy is required to perform any action. As Prakrti performs the action of qualifying a'tman or unit consciousness, She is a unique force. She is the principle which qualifies unit consciousness. It is Prakrti who, by Her influence on unit consciousness, gives it the qualities of different functions. Prakrti is a unique force -- a principle. But some questions which arise are: whose principle is She, and where does She come from?
Prakrti je potrebno objasniti. Prakrti je entitet koji kontrolira prirodne događaje. Prakrti nije niti priroda, niti kvaliteta. Primjerice, za kvalitetu gorenje kažemo da je priroda vatre. Mora postojati nešto što vatri daje tu kvalitetu; jednako kao što postoji nešto što daje što daje kvalitetu svjesnosti jedinke. To što kvalificira svjesnost jedinke je Prakrti i to nije kvaliteta koja se izražava zbog njezinog utjecaja. Prakrti je sanskritska riječ i izvedena je iz pra -- kr + ktin i njeno značenje jeste učiniti nešto na poseban način. Svjesnost jedinke utvrđuje se u postojanju jedino ako je Prakrti kvalificira. Drugim rječima, Prakrti kvalificira svjesnost jedinke ili a'tman na način da mu daje osjećaj vlastitog postojanja. Da bi se izvela bilo koja akcija, potrebna je energija. Kako Prakrti čini akciju na način da kvalificira a'tman ili svjesnost jedinke, Ona je jedinstvena sila. Ona je princip koji kvalificira svjesnost jedinke. Prakrti je Ona koja svojim utjecajem na svjesnost jedinke daje joj kvalitetu različitih funkcija. Prakrti je jedinstvena sila -- princip. Neka pitanja koja se postavljaju su: čiji je Ona princip i odakle dolazi?
Prakrti is the principle of Purus'a, and it is by His own principle that Purus'a is influenced and qualified. As Prakrti is the principle of Purus'a, She must exist within Purus'a. In fact She always does. Unit consciousness and its prakrti can never be separated from each other, just as the burning principle of fire which cannot be separated from fire. Anything which acquires a characteristic quality due to the influence of a principle or force, cannot exist if that principle or force is withdrawn from it. The two will always go together, and so do unit consciousness and its principle, prakrti. Unit consciousness and its prakrti are inseparable like the two sides of a sheet of paper. The only function of Prakrti is to continually create different forms by Her influence over consciousness.
Prakrti je princip Parama Puruše, i taj Njegov vlastiti principom utječe na i određuje Parama Purušu. Kako je Prakrti princip Parama Puruše, Ona mora postojati u Puruši. U stvari, to je uvijek tako. Jedinična svijest i nezina Prakrti ne mogu se nikada razdvojiti, jednako kao što se princip gorenja vatre ne može odvojiti od vatre. što god ima svoju karakteristiku zbog utjecaja principa il sile, ne može više postojati ako se taj princip ili sila odvoje od njega. To dvoje će uvijek ići zajendo, uključujući i jediničnu svijest i nezin princip, prakrti. Jedinična svijest i njezina prakrti su nerazdvojne, kao što su nerazdvojne dvije strane lista papira. Jedina funkcija Prakrti je da neprestano stvara različite oblike pomoću Njezinog utjecaja na svijest.
Unit consciousness is the witnessing entity and realizes its existence only when it is qualified to manifest as "I" of "I exist." The principle of Prakrti which establishes the existence of unit consciousness by qualifying Purus'a is called sattvagun'a, the sentient principle, and the part of mind which is thus formed to give the feeling of "I exist" is called mahattattva or buddhitattva. It will be more correct to say that under the influence of sattvagun'a, unit consciousness manifests itself as mahattattva or buddhitattva.
Every action presupposes existence. Unless I exist, I shall not be able to see. Here also we find that "I" has two different functions or aspects. The first is the witnessing entity or consciousness, which, in order to prove or realize its existence, has acquired the feeling of "I exist," and the same "I" now performs the function of seeing. The "I" of "I exist" is the buddhitattva which, while seeing something, takes up the function of seeing in addition to establishing the existence of unit consciousness. When unit consciousness is influenced by Prakrti, it manifests itself as buddhitattva. Similarly, the additional ability to perform an action is also caused by the influence of Prakrti on buddhitattva. Prakrti will also be present in buddhitattva as it is only a manifestation of unit consciousness, and Prakrti is bound to be with unit consciousness wherever and in whatever form it may exist. The principle or gun'a of Prakrti which gives this quality or capacity to buddhitattva is called rajogun'a, the mutative principle. Thus when buddhitattva is influenced by Prakrti, it displays two functions or aspects. The latter, which it gets from rajogun'a and which gives it the capacity or quality to perform an action, is known as aham'tattva. That is, buddhitattva manifests itself as aham'tattva when influenced by rajogun'a or the mutative principle of Prakrti.
Every action is bound to have a result in the end. For example, when you look at a book the result is seeing the book. How we see a book was explained earlier. Citta, which is a part of mind, picks up the form-producing tanma'tra of the book and itself becomes the form of the book. It is that book that aham'tattva sees. Citta takes the form of what aham'tattva wants it to be. When aham'tattva sees a book, citta becomes that book, and when it hears a sound, citta becomes that sound. Citta therefore is entirely dependent on aham'tattva for its form. Citta keeps on changing its form at the bidding of aham'tattva. It must then be very closely connected with aham'tattva. How citta is formed needs clarification. Citta, as was explained earlier, is a part of the mind, and buddhitattva and aham'tattva are the other two parts. Buddhitattva and aham'tattva are manifestations of unit consciousness formed due to the influence of sattvagun'a of Prakrti over it and of rajogun'a over buddhitattva. In other words it is unit consciousness which, under the influence of Prakrti, takes up the function of aham'tattva in the second stage. Hence Prakrti is present in aham'tattva and is bound to qualify it further. In fact, it is due to Prakrti qualifying aham'tattva that it manifests itself as citta. The quality of Prakrti which influences aham'tattva is called tamogun'a, the static principle. It is as a result of the influence of tamogun'a that aham'tattva, or the "I" that performs actions, has to take up the mental image of the result of its action. This means that when "I" see a book, it is "I" that becomes like the book. Another "I" thus comes into being under the influence of tamogun'a. It is this "I" which takes the form of the mental image of the book during perception. This "I" which becomes like the book or takes on the form of the book is citta. Thus it is unit consciousness which gradually manifests itself as citta.
In the preceding paragraphs it was established by logic and reasoning that it is only unit consciousness which, under the influence of the different principles of its Prakrti, gradually manifests itself as citta, and as a result of this, mind comes into being. The existence of unit consciousness is essential for mind, which is only a gradual manifestation of unit consciousness under the qualifying influence of Prakrti. Mind, in fact, cannot be formed without the presence of a'tman or unit consciousness. But we know that mind is present in every individual. Hence a'tman or unit consciousness is also present in every individual. There are innumerable individuals in this universe, and as a'tman or unit consciousness is reflected in each one, there appear to be many a'tmans or unit consciousnesses. The collective name for all these a'tmans or unit consciousnesses is Parama'tman, Bhu'ma'caetanya, Brahma or Bhagava'n. Just as twelve units make a dozen, twenty make a score, and the collective name for a very large number of soldiers is an army, the collective name for all the unit consciousnesses is Parama'tman, Bhu'ma'caetanya or Bhagava'n. The name Bhagava'n should not be construed as a mighty human figure with powerful hands and feet. It is the collection of all our a'tmans. The nearest word in English which may be used for a'tman or unit consciousness is "soul", so Bhagava'n may also be called Universal Consciousness or Universal Soul. This shows that Bhagava'n does exist and that It exists as Parama'tman or Universal Soul, Bhu'ma'caetanya or Cosmic Consciousness, or Brahma, the Eternal Blessedness.